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The intended goal of this paper is to help guide policymakers, international financial institutions and development agencies in their design and implementation of public sector reform programmes in Iraq. It is worth emphasizing that Iraq's predicament is by no means exceptional, and this paper uses specific and relevant experiences from other countries to illustrate how to overcome obstacles to reform.
This gender and conflict analysis of ISIS-affected communities of Iraq aims to improve understanding of gender dynamics in the context of conflict and displacement. The report sets out to identify the differential impact of ISIS occupation on women, girls, men and boys in order to explore shifts in prevailing gender norms held by study participants in Anbar, Salah Al Din and Nineveh governorates of Iraq. The objective is to enhance the understanding of the social pressures women and men experience when aiming to conform to context-specific gendered expectations of masculinity and femininity, in order to derive concrete recommendations for gender-responsive and conflict-sensitive humanitarian and recovery programming.
Iraq faces severe pressures on its water resources following years of conflict and under-investment in infrastructure. This research focuses on the state of water resources in Kirkuk governorate in the north of the country and identifies the main challenges that need to be addressed. The research report and accompanying briefing note recommend a collaborative approach to water management between government, INGOs in the WASH sector and local communities and water users (including those involved in agriculture, industry and electricity generation). It is hoped that the recommendations will inform approaches to water management across the country as a whole and in the wider Middle East region.Ã‚Â
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre;
The twentieth of June is World Refugee Day, dedicated to raising awareness of the situation of refugees. There are nearly twice as many internally displaced people (IDPs) as there are refugees, but there is no International Day of Internal Displacement.To bring attention to the invisible majority of displaced people, the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) is investigating the relationship between internal displacement and cross-border movement. Based on primary research conducted with refugees, returning refugees and IDPs from Afghanistan, Colombia, Iraq, Myanmar, Nigeria, South Sudan and Yemen, we arrive at the following key findings:Cross-border movements are often a symptom of the failure to protect and assist IDPs in their country of origin. More than half of the refugees and returning refugees surveyed were internally displaced before leaving their country of origin. Many suffered multiple internal displacements and were unable to find safety in their country of origin.Restrictive migration policies combine with the high cost of irregular migration to limit opportunities for IDPs seeking refuge abroad. Instead, IDPs are exposed to repeated incidents of internal displacement. Nearly 47 per cent of IDPs surveyed were displaced multiple times. Border closures resulting from COVID-19 act as a further barrier to international protection.Difficult conditions abroad can push refugees to return prematurely to their countries of origin. Family reunification is the most powerful motivation behind returns, but refugees who are unable to make ends meet in their host country may feel they have no choice but to return to insecurity in their country of origin. Under such circumstances, return assistance runs the risk of encouraging premature returns.Refugees who return prematurely to their country of origin often find themselves in situations of internal displacement. Over three-quarters of returning refugees surveyed were living outside their area of origin, often because of continued insecurity and housing destruction. Returning refugees and IDPs face similar challenges in terms of accessing durable solutions to their displacement.
Norwegian Church Aid;
After a 14-year history of working in Iraq, Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) began phasing out its operations there in 2011. This evaluation looks at the impact of water supply and desalination units they installed in schools, hospitals, cities and rural villages starting in 2005. Hygiene promotion and sanitation became a focus in the last few years of the period, and these activities are assessed as well, with all components being evaluated along the three main criteria of technical issues, sustainability, and gender equity. Overall, NCA's work has directly impacted drinking water supplies of 1 million beneficiaries, with the best results for sustainability coming from reverse osmosis units in hospitals and purification or compact units in cities and villages.
International Rescue Committee;
Mosul, Iraq's second largest city, was captured by ISIS in June 2014 and remains under their control. The Iraqi army has vowed to recapture Mosul and the speculation is that a counter-offensive is imminent - a military operation which could have dramatic humanitarian implications. A large influx of internally displaced persons (IDPs) fleeing towards the Ninewa plains would have an impact on markets in the area.All humanitarian interventions have an impact on markets, and understanding market dynamics is fundamental to (1) doing no harm, (2) increasing efficiency and effectiveness and (3) strengthening both emergency response and livelihoods promotion interventions.This report describes an exercise carried out in February 2016 by Oxfam and the International Rescue Committee (IRC) using Pre-Crisis Market Analysis (PCMA) to inform preparedness and emergency response interventions by understanding the market systems that are critical to supporting the basic needs and livelihoods recovery needs of populations affected by displacement in the Ninewa plains. The full report is available at http://www.emma-toolkit.org/report/pcma-northern-iraq-credit-water-wheatflour
In the aftermath of the rapid advance of Daesh through central parts of Iraq, a humanitarian crisis of significant proportion remains. Since March 2015, over 458,000 people have returned to their places of origin. Many have been driven by government guarantees of improved security coupled with a lack of access to land, food and income generating activities in displacement sites. They have returned under precarious conditions, without the support required to ensure progress towards durable solutions, and they rely on assistance to recover and rebuild. Efforts must be made to ensure that returns are safe, dignified and sustainable. This paper outlines the current situation and provides recommendations for the Government of Iraq, UN agencies, donors and NGOs.
The reconstruction of Iraq is one of the most urgent challenges facing the international community. Over the past two decades the country has been devastated by successive wars and since 1990 sanctions. Ordinary Iraqis have suffered gross violations of human rights, along with one of the most dramatic deteriorations in living standards ever recorded. Now unsustainable debt threatens to undermine reconstruction efforts. This briefing paper argues that the country's debt is unpayable, but also that that there are wider moral and legal grounds for reducing Iraq's debt burden. It sets out a case for treating Iraq's debt as odious and illegitimate - and it explains why ordinary Iraqis should not pay for a debt accumulated by a tyrannical regime, borrowing from irresponsible creditors.
The war continues and many outcomes are possible. There is already a debate on the shape of Iraq.s reconstruction. This briefing note proposes principles of how the international community should assist the people of Iraq in establishing their own administration after the war. It does not seek to set out a precise model. Our proposals are based on our experience and lessons from Kosovo, Bosnia, East Timor and Afghanistan. Oxfam also played a significant role in the immediate and medium-term reconstruction of Iraq after the first Gulf War.
Humanitarian aid is most effectively delivered by civilian humanitarian agencies under UN leadership. Military involvement can compromise the effective delivery of aid and lead to unintended consequences, potentially threatening the security of civilian aid workers.
The Iraqi people are already in a highly vulnerable situation. With Iraq's basic infrastructures eroded by decades of war, national mismanagement and twelve years of sanctions, another war in Iraq will have devastating humanitarian consequences for the civilian population. For that reason, Oxfam remains convinced that military action is unjustifiable. One vital way to protect Iraq's vulnerable civilians is to avert a war.
Armed violence is the greatest threat facing Iraqis, but the population is also experiencing another kind of crisis of an alarming scale and severity. Eight million people are in urgent need of emergency aid; that figure includes over two million who are displaced within the country, and more than two million refugees. Many more are living in poverty, without basic services, and increasingly threatened by disease and malnutrition. Despite the constraints imposed by violence, the government of Iraq, the United Nations, and international donors can do more to deliver humanitarian assistance to reduce unnecessary suffering. If people's basic needs are left unattended, this will only serve to further destabilise the country.